K. A Stiver, J. L Fitzpatrick, J. K Desjardins, and S. Balshine (2009)
Mixed parentage in Neolamprologus pulcher groups
Journal of Fish Biology, 74(5):1129-1135.
Genetic data collected on co-operatively breeding Neolamprologus pulcher groups from Lake Tanganyika revealed mixed parentage in 80\% of the groups examined. A case (1/11) of shared maternity was detected where a subordinate female bred alongside the dominant female in a social group. Extra-pair paternity was assigned to other dominant males who held their own social groups, but subordinate males were not found to father young in any group (0/9).